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We used to think that maintaining a healthy weight was a simple equation. If you needed to lose weight, you were told to simply “eat less and exercise more.”
These days, however, we know that it’s way more complicated than that. In fact, there are almost endless factors affecting our ability to lose weight, including underlying health conditions, food allergies, chronic stress, and gut microbiome issues—just to name a few.
And all these barriers to weight loss have one thing in common: they produce chronic inflammation in the body.
The cycle of inflammation and weight gain
The relationship between inflammation and weight gain is a complicated one. It appears that inflammation causes weight gain and weight gain causes inflammation, so they feed off each other in a vicious cycle that can be hard to break. For example, studies have suggested (1) that overeating triggers the immune system, which causes the body to generate excessive inflammation.
Fat in and of itself causes inflammation, as one study concluded that an excess of macronutrients in adipose tissue stimulates the release (2) of inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6. Visceral fat—which is the name given to the particularly unhealthy fat that accumulates in the abdomen—has been shown to be even more active, producing inflammatory markers, triggering long-term inflammation, and increasing a person’s risk for inflammation-based chronic diseases, such as arteriosclerosis (3) and diabetes. (4)
If you’re surprised by how complicated this all seems, you’re not alone. It is complicated! Clearly, the “calories in, calories out” equation we were all taught as kids isn’t going to cut it anymore. When you dive deeper into the relationship between inflammation and weight gain it will inevitably lead you to the gut, which brings us to…
How alterations in gut health cause inflammation and weight gain
As journalist James Hamlin wrote in an article (5) for The Atlantic, “The immune system determines levels of inflammation in the gut that are constantly shaping the way we digest food—how many calories get absorbed, and how many nutrients simply pass through.” He’s accurately trying to communicate that our gut really controls how we utilize the food we eat, how much inflammation is produced, and whether or not we gain weight, lose weight, or maintain our weight. Hamblin was also correct when he wrote that “the relationship between microbes and weight gain has long been overlooked in humans.”
But research over the last few years has made the connection harder and harder to ignore; it’s now very clear that our gut microbiome plays a huge role in weight management. Studies have shown (6) that gut microbes in people that are overweight and obese are different from those found in people of a healthy weight. It’s thought that it’s these alterations that cause changes (7) in the immune system that feed low-grade inflammation and trigger the metabolic changes that occur with obesity and diabetes. Unfortunately, the standard American diet is chock full of inflammatory foods like sugar, unhealthy fats, and grains that, when eaten too often, can lead to a damaged gut lining, which only adds fuel to the fire.
Food allergies—such as those to dairy or gluten—can also be a trigger for the inflammatory response. If you don’t address underlying food sensitivities and allergies, it will be close to impossible to maintain a healthy weight. One study even showed (8) that with the help of an RD, 54% of overweight and 47% of obese individuals lost weight on a gluten-free diet.
How inflammatory foods cause hunger, cravings, and changes in eating behavior
Unfortunately, the connections between weight gain and inflammation continue even deeper. Inflammation in the gut can affect the hypothalamus, which is the part of the brain in charge of hunger signals. When this happens, your ability to know when you’re actually hungry and stop eating when you’re full is impaired resulting in something called leptin resistance (which you can read more about here).
Acting as the cherry on top, the bacteria in our gut also have the powerful ability to increase or decrease cravings, (9) which means the microbes living in our gut essentially tell us what to eat. (10) And if you have too many microbes that like to feed off of sugars and simple carbs, when you try to eat less of them, you’ll crave them more and more. That’s one of the many reasons why it’s so hard to detox the body from sugar. Pretty crazy (and scary), isn’t it?
A final world on inflammation and weight gain
Considering the fact that about 1/3 of Americans (11) are obese and another third are overweight, the cycle of weight gain-inflammation-weight gain is one we should all be aware of.
Ready for some good news? By making healthy lifestyle choices you can decrease inflammation and lose excess weight, which will help you reverse the cycle. As one study, (12) published in Nutrition Research Reviews, concluded: “A period of weight loss per se is capable of reversing the unfavorable inflammatory profile evident in the obese state.” If you’re not sure where to start, try incorporating these 9 inflammation-fighting foods into your diet and download my Heal Your Gut Guide.
If you want to learn more about your own health case please check out our free health evaluation. We offer webcam as well as in-person consultations for people across the country and around the world.
- University of Oslo. (2014, August 25). Being overweight causes hazardous inflammations. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 21, 2019 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140825084836.htm
- Ellulu, M. S., Patimah, I., Khaza’ai, H., Rahmat, A., & Abed, Y. (2017). Obesity and inflammation: the linking mechanism and the complications. Archives of medical science : AMS, 13(4), 851–863. doi:10.5114/aoms.2016.58928
- Ohman, Miina K., Andrew P. Wright, Kevin J. Wickenheiser, Wei Luo, and Daniel T. Eitzman. “Visceral Adipose Tissue and Atherosclerosis.” Current Vascular Pharmacology 7, no. 2 (April 2009): 169–79.
- Lyon, Christopher J., and Willa A. Hsueh. “Effect of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease.” The American Journal of Medicine 115 Suppl 8A (December 8, 2003): 62S – 68S. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2003.08.014.
- Humbling, J. (2019, August 2). Inflammation’s Hidden Role In Weight Loss. The Atlantic . doi: 10/15/19
- Ley, Ruth E., Fredrik Bäckhed, Peter Turnbaugh, Catherine A. Lozupone, Robin D. Knight, and Jeffrey I. Gordon. “Obesity Alters Gut Microbial Ecology.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, no. 31 (August 2, 2005): 11070–75. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0504978102.
- Burcelin, Rémy, Lucile Garidou, and Céline Pomié. “Immuno-Microbiota Cross and Talk: The New Paradigm of Metabolic Diseases.” Seminars in Immunology 24, no. 1 (February 2012): 67–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smim.2011.11.011.
- Cheng, Jianfeng, Pardeep S. Brar, Anne R. Lee, and Peter H. R. Green. “Body Mass Index in Celiac Disease: Beneficial Effect of a Gluten-Free Diet.” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 44, no. 4 (April 2010): 267–71. https://doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0b013e3181b7ed58.
- Gasque G (2017) An appetite for understanding appetite. PLOS Biology 15(5): e2002838. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2002838
- Sheikh , K. (2017, April 25). How Gut Bacteria Tell Their Hosts What to Eat. Scientific American. doi: 10/15/2019
- Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2015–2016. (2017, October). Retrieved October 15, 2019, from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db288.pdf.
- Forsythe, L. Kirsty, Julie M. W. Wallace, and M. Barbara E. Livingstone. “Obesity and Inflammation: The Effects of Weight Loss.” Nutrition Research Reviews 21, no. 2 (December 2008): 117–33. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954422408138732.
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